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Population projections are empirically based calculations of the future size of the population under specified assumptions about changes in the components of population growth of fertility, mortality and migration.

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Mortality refers to the deaths that occur in a population. Together with fertility and migration, it is one of the three demographic processes that determine population changes. 

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In the 2015 Census, in comparison with the 2010 Census, there was clear evidence of a sustained decline in fertility, as was also experienced between the 2004 and 2010 Censuses.

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The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is the number of children a woman would have at the end of her reproductive life if she experienced a given set of age-specific fertility rate throughout her reproductive life (Dharmalingam, 2004). Different methods were used to measure the TFR in 2015 Census.

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The 2015 Census was conducted by the General Directorate of Statistics (Direcção Geral de Estatística, GDE) of the Ministry of Finance.
Marriage patterns, breastfeeding practices, the incidence of abortion, and contraceptive prevalence are the major proximate determinants of fertility. The 2015 Census does not collect data on breastfeeding practices or prevalence of contraceptive methods. However, the census collects data on marital status patterns by age, sex, background characteristics (literacy, educational attainment, employment status) and geography.
In this report, marital status is classified as: never married, married, living together, widowed, divorced, and separated.

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Infant mortality
The Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is the number of deaths of children aged less than one year per 1,000 births.
The 2017 revision of World Population Prospects estimated the IMR for Timor-Leste at 43.9 deaths per 1,000 live births for the period 2010–2015. This value was very close to the value for the South Asian region (44.0). However, the rate was higher than the rates for neighboring countries (Indonesia: 24.9; Philippines: 22.2), the South-east Asian region (24.0), and also the world average (35.0) (United Nations Department for Economic and Social Affairs, 2017).

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The 2015 Census was conducted by the General Directorate of Statistics (Direcção Geral de Estatística, GDE) of the Ministry of Finance.
The census provides information on the economic characteristics of the working age population including employment and unemployment, status in employment, industry and occupation. The data are also analyzed by municipality, by sex, and with respect to sub-populations including youth and working children.

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The analytical report on youth combines findings from the 2015 DHS and Census. It relates to sexual and reproductive health from the recent 2016 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to provide an overview of the situation and range of issues faced by young people in Timor-Leste today.
The vision of the National Youth Policy is for young people to be “healthy, educated, competitive, active and responsible citizens, who are proud to be Timorese.”
The policy outlines five priority intervention areas: Education; Healthy lifestyle; Employment and employability; Civic participation; Violence and crime. This brief addresses three of these priority areas.

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Population & Housing Census sheds light on Gender Concerns in Timor-Leste
Gender equality is an enabler for achieving sustainable development in Timor-Leste. Recognized in the National Strategic Development Plan and overseen by the national women’s machinery – the Secretary of State for Equality and Inclusion (SEI) – achieving gender equality is the responsibility of all government agencies and development partners. The census is one of several national data sets that contributes to the evidence base used to guide and monitor progress toward gender equality and social inclusion.

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Education matters. It is the way through which one generation passes on its knowledge, experience and
cultural legacy to the next generation. Education has the means to empower individuals and impacts every
aspect of life. It is the vehicle to how one develops and understands the world. It creates opportunities for
decent work and higher income and is correlated to many other components which can enrich one's
quality of life and contribute to happiness, health, mental well-being, civic engagement, home ownership
and long-term financial stability. Besides the economic implications, education is a fundamental right of
each and every child. It is a matter of fulfilling basic human dignity, believing in the potential of every
person and enhancing it with knowledge, learning and skills to construct the cornerstones of healthy
human development. 
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