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While Timor-Leste is believed to be on the right track in achieving many of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) , as well as achieving national development targets, the country still
faces enormous development , socio - cultural, and demographic challenges. The magnitude of these challenges creates drivers and vulnerabilities in the context of HIV infection . Two - thirds of the country’s population is below the age of 30, which means that relatively large numbers of people are sexually active and susceptible to risk - taking behavior. Y oung people are not sufficientlyequipped with the knowledge and life skills toreduceHIV risk in an increasingly  challenging environment. Timor- Leste is reported to have high levels of gender - based violence, undermining women’s ability to negotiate safer sex and making them more vulnerable to HIV and AIDS.
In addition, the increasing mobility and migration of the p opulation into and out of the country via tourism, overseas studies, and employment increases people’s vulnerability. HIV affects people at every level , yet stigma , misunderstanding and misconceptions still exist.